DJOSER. DIOSER-IT, TOSORTHROS, HORO NETJRIKHE
Dynasty: III ( 2700-2630 BC)
Years of reign: 29 (Manetone); 19 (Canon in Turin) [ 2680-2650 BC (Manetone)]
History placement: Ancient Reign 2700-2200 BC.
He is considered the founder of the III dynasty, though some recent cataloguing
prefer to precede pharaoh Sanakht, and he is certainly the most important, up to
the point that in the “Royal Canon in Tutin” his name is specially written in
His main undertaking is the great pyramid in steps in
dominates the city of
It’s an imposing building that raises, with six
steps of different height, up to 71 meters.
The building complex, brought back
to light and restored in rather recent years, is among the most impressive
sights that Egypt offers.
The estimate of the duration of Djoser’s reign is controversial,
according to the Canon in Torino it was 19 years long, while according to
Manetone, the years of reign were 29. The discovery, in the funeral complex, of
a courtyard for the Jubilee
celebration, has not been helpful, because it was
usually celebrated for the thirtieth year of reign, but which even other
pharaohs celebrated with great advance during their own reign.
In the pyramid in
steps, Djoser is always defined with his Horo name (Netjrikhe), as it was then
the custom (the family name was pointed out and enclosed in the cartouche only
in the following dynasty).
Manetone, in his list, doesn’t cite any Djoser but
mentions, as the second king, the name Tosorthos.
The only proof that identifies
Djoser as Horo Netjrikhe and as Manetone’s Tosorthos is in a long rocky
inscription of the tolomeo epoch in Sehel island (first cataract) where it’s
narrated that king Netjrikhe Djoser, concerned for the famine that for seven
years afflicted the country, asked advice to the wise
Knowing this way
that the flood of the
Nile was under control of the god of Elefantina island,
Khum, the king pacified him giving him the wide area from lower Nubia called
Dodecasheno by the Greeks, as a gift.